In addition, trade in agricultural commodities is covered by three bilateral agreements negotiated separately between Iceland, Norway and Switzerland/Liechtenstein on the one hand, and Lebanon on the other. These agreements are part of the instruments for creating the free trade area. They provide for reciprocal tariff concessions. Each agreement also contains specific rules of origin, usually based on “fully preserved” criteria. The pan-Euro-Mediterranean cumulative system was introduced in 2005. It brings together the EU, Lebanon and other European and Mediterranean partners to support regional integration through the creation of a common system of rules of origin. Rules of origin are the technical criteria for determining whether a particular product is eligible for duty-free access or other preferential access under a specific trade agreement. Agreements between economic operators of the contracting parties and the abuse of dominant position by the economic operators of the contracting parties are incompatible with the agreement if they affect trade between the EFTA states and Lebanon. In this case, a party may refer the matter to the joint committee and, in the absence of an agreement between the parties concerned, take appropriate action. The agreement also provides for an exchange of information between the parties on the application of their competition laws.
A joint committee made up of representatives from EFTA and Lebanon states oversees the implementation of the agreement. Parties may hold consultations and, in the absence of agreement, apply interim measures. The ASSOCIATION agreement BETWEEN the EU and Lebanon has gradually liberalised trade between the EU and Lebanon. Its gradual implementation was planned between 2008 and 2014, and Lebanese industrial products and most agricultural products benefit from free access to the EU market in order to create a bilateral free trade area. In addition, bilateral agreements on agricultural commodities have been concluded between the various EFTA countries and Lebanon, which are part of the instruments for creating the free trade area. The accumulation of origin means that a product can be processed from a partner country or can be added to a product from another partner country, but can nevertheless be considered a “product of origin” of that second partner country for the purpose of a specific trade agreement.